Glaucoma is a chronic pathology characterized by a progressive damage to the optic nerve, i.e. the connection between the eye and the cerebral nervous system where visual information arrives. The aqueous humor that is continuously produced in the eyeball cannot correctly flow out when this pathology exists. This causes an increase in internal pressure in the eye which in turn presses against the nerve and worsens its blood supply.
Prevention And Early Diagnosis
Glaucoma is a pathology that is asymptomatic until its evolutionary phase. Therefore, prevention and early diagnosis are extremely important. People who are familiar with the illness, have had ocular traumas, have been affected by diabetes or hypertension, or a high level of myopia and, in general, people over the age of 40 have to undergo a careful eye examination and specific instrumental examinations.
Types Of Glaucoma
There are different types of glaucoma:
- simple chronic glaucoma (open-angle), it is the most common type caused by a malfunction of the trabecular system, the aqueous humor drainage system,
- acute glaucoma (closed-angle), arises in a violent manner, causes severe pain and eye irritation and caused by a sudden total obstruction of the aqueous humor outflow tract,
- congenital glaucoma, it is a very rare form which manifests itself already at birth and is caused by a malformation of the aqueous humor outflow pathways that determines the abnormal increase in intraocular pressure.
How Is Glaucoma Treated
Glaucoma treatment can be pharmacological or surgical depending on the developmental stage and severity of the disease. To stop its progression, it is necessary to essentially reduce the intraocular pressure. This reduction can be obtained through the administration of eyedrops that facilitate aqueous humor outflow, or that reduce its production. The use of eye drops lasts throughout the patient’s life.
Depending on the type of glaucoma, it can be indicated a treatment with the use of lasers. The treatment is ambulatory, virtually painless. Only when the aforementioned treatments are no longer effective, one shall recourse to surgery with or without the installation of a drainage system.