Cataract surgery has been through many technological innovations. The introduction of the femtosecond laser or femto laser revolutionized this surgical procedure. Thanks to the femtosecond laser, the main phases of the operation are programmed by the surgeon on a computer and carried out by a laser in a few seconds without using scalpels and forceps. Every step is monitored in real time through optical coherence tomography (OCT), which carries out a three-dimensional control of the structures that need to be operated on by leading the action of the laser. However, not every eye is suitable for this technique. Only the ophthalmologist can evaluate the situation through specific examinations and decide on the most suitable operation.
The traditional process of extracting the crystalline lens and implanting an intraocular lens is one of the safest and most successful in ophthalmology today. It is now possible to proceed with the crystalline lens surgery, without the use of a scalpel. This is made possible thanks to the laser technology that significantly improves the accuracy of many critical phases of the process. With the crystalline laser technique, the surgeon can customize the correcting intervention according to its visual needs and anatomical features of the eye.
The equipment, with laser technology, allows the surgeon to have a continuous display of the ocular structure throughout the intervention, resulting in the smooth crystalline extraction. To extract the lens, it is necessary to create an opening on the thin membrane of the capsular bag which supports the crystal. This step is called capsulorhexis.
Once the capsular bag is open, the lens must be fragmented into pieces in order to facilitate the extraction. The traditional emulsion uses ultrasonic energy to divide the lens into quadrants. This step is carried out so instantly, using much less energy with the femtosecond laser.
With traditional surgery of the lens, the incisions are done with a scalpel. In laser surgery, incisions are realized with the precision of the femtosecond laser.
The capsulorhexis is more controlled and precise with the laser. It could contribute to a better positioning of the lens and thus to a more predictable visual result, which is particularly important with premium IOLs.
With both techniques, traditional and femtosecond, the fragments of the lens may be easily removed, however, the latter technique requires less ultrasonic energy to extract the crystalline. This means that there is less tension in the fibers and membranes that retain the intraocular lens in its position. Once the crystalline is removed, the intraocular lens is inserted. Normally, stitches are not required as the incisions are smaller than 2mm. All surgery has a duration of between 15 and 20 minutes.